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cracks in concrete structure

4.1- Recommendations of high temperature:
Recognition of the factors that affect concrete: and planning to minimize their effects. Use proven local recommendations for adjusting and set retarding admixtures. Modifying the mixture to reduce the heat generated by cement hydration, such as the use of ASTM Type II moderate heat cement and the use of pozzolans and slag can reduce potential problems with high concrete temperature. Advance timing and scheduling to avoid delays in delivery, placing and finishing is essential. Trucks should be able to discharge immediately and adequate personnel should be available to place and handle the concrete. When possible, deliveries should be scheduled to avoid the hottest part of the day. Limits on maximum concrete temperature may be waived by the purchaser if the concrete consistency is adequate for the placement and excessive water additional is not required. In the case of extreme temperature conditions or with mass concrete, the concrete temperature can be lowered by using chilled water or ice as part of the mixing water. The ready mixed concrete producer uses other measures, such as sprinkling and shading the aggregate prior to mixing, to help lower the temperature of the concrete.
4.2- Control of shrinkage cracking
Concrete tends to shrink due to drying whenever its surface are exposed to air of low relative humidity or high winds. Because various kinds of restraint prevent the concrete from contracting freely, cracking should be expected, unless the ambient relative humidity is kept near 100%. The control of cracking consists of reducing the cracking tendency to minimum, using adequate and properly positioned reinforcement, and using contraction joints. Cracking can also be minimized by using expansive cements to produce shrinkage-compensating concrete. Reducing of cracking tendency-most measures that can be taken to reduce concrete shrinkage will also reduce the cracking tendency. Drying shrinkage can be reducing by using less water in the mixture and largest practical maximum-size aggregate. A lower water content can be achieved by using a well-graded aggregate, stiffer consistency, and lower initial temperature of the concrete. Reinforcement-Properly placed reinforcement, used in adequate amounts, will reduce the number and widths of cracks, reducing unsightly cracking. By distributing the shrinkage strains along the reinforcement through bond stresses, the cracks are distributed so that a large number of narrow cracks occur instead of a few wide cracks. Also, the use of joints is the an effective method of preventing the formation of unsightly cracking.
4.3- Recommendations of shrinkage in fresh concrete
Quality Concrete and Concrete Practices the first defense against corrosion of steel in concrete is quality concrete and sufficient concrete cover over the reinforcing bars. Quality concrete has a water-to-cementitious material ratio (w/c) that is low enough to slow down the penetration of chloride salts and the development of carbonation. The w/c ratio should be less than 0.50 to slow the rate of carbonation and less than 0.40 to minimize chloride penetration. Concretes with low w/c ratios can be produced by (1) increasing the cement content; (2) reducing the water content by using water reducers and superplasticizers; or (3) by using larger amounts of fly ash, slag, or other cementitious materials. Additionally, the use of concrete ingredients containing chlorides should be limited. The AI 318 Building Code provides limits on the maximum amount of soluble chlorides in the concrete mix

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