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energy transfer and thermodynamics

Define the four laws of thermodynamics using words, diagrams and equations where appropriate. (6 Marks)

What is entropy? Explain why liquids are more disordered than solids and why gases are more disordered than liquids? (2 Marks)

Predict whether entropy increases or decrease for the following reaction and explain why. (Do not calculate entropy):
CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g)
N2(g) + 3H2(g) ↔2NH3(g)
NH4NO3(s) → NH4+(aq) + NO3¯(aq)
H2O(g) ↔ H2O(l)
(4 Marks)

Calculate ΔS for the following reaction, using the thermodynamic data provided.
NaCl(s) → Na+(aq) + Cl¯(aq)
2NO(g)+O2(g) → N2O4(g),
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(l).
2NO2(g) ↔ N2O4(g)
(8 Marks)

These questions test your understanding of temperature measurements and temperature scales.
Body temperature is 37°C what is this in Kelvin, Fahrenheit and Rankine scales?
What is absolute zero in Celsius, Fahrenheit and Rankine scales?
The temperature of a system rises by 45°C during a heating process. Express this rise in temperature in Kelvins.
The temperature of a system rises by 180°F during a heating process. Express this rise in temperature in R, K and °C.
(6 Marks)

The mass flow rate is 4kg/s, the heat of combustion for C3H8 is 46 450kJ/kg. Determine the heat release rate. (1 Mark)

What is Fourier’s Law? Mathematically express Fouriers Law defining all the terms used within it. What is thermal conductivity? Compare the values of thermal conductivity of metals, insulating materials and gases. Why does Fourier’s law have a minus sign? (8 Marks)

Explain the Stefen-Boltzman Law. What is emissivity? What are the range of values for the emissivity of a surface? Define the terms “black surface” and “grey surface”. What role does the view factor play in determining the rate of heat transfer? What is a blackbody? (8 Marks)

Define heat of combustion, heat release rate and combustion reaction giving appropriate equations. Explain the different types of combustion and definitions of the following: Specific heat capacity, latent heat, calorimetry, combustion temperature and chemical equilibrium. (8 Marks)

Determine the rate of heat transfer per unit area for a blackbody at 20°C. Is a good absorber of radiation a good emitter or a poor emitter? (2 Marks)

Explain Newton’s Law of cooling and give the mathematical equation defining all the terms used. How is natural convection different from forced convection? (4 Marks)

Aluminium has a specific heat of 0.902 J/goC. How much heat is lost when a piece of aluminium with a mass of 28.984 g cools from a temperature of 615.0oC to a temperature of 122.0oC? (2 Marks)

A heat engine draws heat from a combustion chamber at 300°C and exhausts to atmosphere at 10°C. What is the maximum thermal efficiency that could be achieved? (2 Marks)

The temperature of a sample of water increases by 39.5oC when 24 500 J are applied. The specific heat of liquid water is 4.18 J/goC. What is the mass of the sample of water? (2 Marks)

How much energy does it take to raise the temperature of 80 g of copper by 30 °C? Specific heat of copper is 0.385 J/g ºC. (2 Marks)

Define the following terms:
Heat capacity,
Specific heat,
Isothermal, isobaric, and isochoric processes.
(4 Marks)

Heat is added to a system, and the system does 56 J of work. If the internal energy increases by 17J, how much heat was added to the system? (2 Marks)

A 60kg block of iron is heated from 20°C to 125°C. How much heat had to be transferred to the iron? (2 Marks)

150J of heat are injected into a heat engine, causing it to do work. The engine then exhausts 45J of heat into a cool reservoir. What is the efficiency of the engine? (2 Marks)

What is kinetic energy and how does it relate to the temperature of a system? (2 Marks)

61.6 ml of milk at 18.6 °C are added to 455.5 ml of coffee at 90.2 °C. What is the final temperature in degrees Celsius of this liquid mixture when thermal equilibrium is reached? Assume coffee has the same properties as pure water. The average density of milk is 1032 kg/m3. The specific heat of milk is 1.97 J/g °C. (6 Marks)

Gold has a specific heat of 0.129 J/g °C. If 15.0 g of gold absorbs 1.33 J of heat, what is the change in temperature of the gold? (2 Marks)
A gas absorbs 3.5J of heat and then performs 1.5J of work. What is the change in internal energy of the gas? (2 Marks)

Explain the ideal gas law, give the mathematical equation and define all the terms used. (2 Marks)

Explain what intensive and extensive properties are, giving examples of each to support your answer. (1 Mark)

Discus the different types of systems encountered in thermodynamics. What is the state postulate? (3 Marks)

A can of soft drink at room temperature is put into the refrigerator so that it will cool. Would you model the can of soft drink as a closed system or as an open system? Explain. (2 Marks)

For a system to be in thermodynamic equilibrium, do the temperature and the pressure have to be the same everywhere? (1 Mark)

What is a quasi-equilibrium process? What is its importance in engineering? (2 Marks)

Consider two closed systems A and B. System A contains 3000 kJ of thermal energy at 20°C, whereas system B contains 200 kJ of thermal energy at 50°C. Now the systems are brought into contact with each other. Determine the direction of any heat transfer between the two systems. (2 Marks)

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