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History Roles and Race-buy custom paper

Biologists in many contexts have scrutinized the human race. For the past fifty-five years, dire changes have occurred in biological understanding about the concept of human race. Such cases have come up due to findings of soaring of different individuals’ knowledge of genetics in the human body. Regarding biological views and neglecting the social facts, the human race has ceased to be seen as a paramount reality that characterizes the human species. The Race is an imagined and culturally constructed concept that does not have any biological foundation. The biologists have come up with several theories that aim at explaining how different races came to exists. The essay is going to focus on the rationalization and justification that has led to enlightenment thinkers to construe the skin color as a vital feature in determining human race. The essay will also eye at the theories that were imagined by different scholars as far as the human race is concerned. Such theories led to the irrational conclusion that physical factors do not provide a fertile ground for the dividing people in terms of races. Finally, after the deep analysis, the essay will focus the ethnic groups in USA and South Africa and how they should be conceptualized in term of the race. USA and South Africa are some of the countries that take human race as real and have real-life implications. It is worthy to look at different theories that try to explain the origin of human races.
Robert Boyle
There are some scientific and cultural facts that were given out by different senile people who were called enlightenment thinkers. Such people lived many years ago, but their assertions are either backed up or criticized by the biologists and polygynists of the modern generation. The Enlightenment thinkers used scientific concepts and hypotheses to support and justify their ideas in racism. The same scientific information from Enlightenment thinkers was also used to explain the racial superiority and inferiority. Some enlightenment thinkers came to the conclusion that finally used the skin color as the particular feature of identifying human race. For instance, one of the scholars who tried to say human race is an imagination was Robert Boyle. Robert Boyle (1527-1691) was the oldest scientists who studied about the human race. He was an Anglo-Irish philosopher, inventor, physicist, and chemist. Robert believed in the concept that is today called monogenism (Simpson 78).
This concept states that all the human races, in spite of their diverse, have the same origin. He examined numerous data that was collected bout parents producing children with different colors, albinos. Such a case compelled him to conclude that Adam and Eve had somewhat white color, and Caucasians was able to produce children with many colors. In addition to Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton in their field of physics suggested about the skin color through the study of optical projection. Such suggestions were later compiled by Boyle where he argued about discourses of polygenesis. The argument speculated that may be the skin color difference was because of seminal impressions (Edelman 78).
Lord Kames
Another enlightenment thinker who studied the relationship between the color and human race was Lord Kames. Kames, a lawyer from Scotland, lived from the years of 1696 to 1782. He was a polygenist who believed in the creation of God in but in the wrong way. His suggestions tackled on the creation where he believed that God created different races and located them on the earth in different geographical regions. He finished saying that the climate conditions of the communities ought not to account for the difference in races. Using the continental drift theory as the evidence, he said that there was a time the universe was one there was only one race.
Due to different forces that acted upon the earth’s crust, different regions (continents) were formed. The human races originated from distinct. For instance, the black-skinned people were impacted by the environmental conditions that gave rise to their skin color. The distribution of continents also led to several classifications of climatic regions that led to black skin color. However, such continental separation never made the white people originate from different species. Both, blacks and whites have the similar genesis. This example clearly shows that race is an imagined, or culturally constructed, concept. Most people think that race is real and has real-life consequences and effects that are wrong (Baugh 34).
The scholars set other theories that the human race is not imagined. The human race is real and has some effect. An example of such people was Charles White. White was born in 1729 and died in 1814. He was both an English and physician. He believed that race have different regions in terms of geographical distribution. Charles tried to prove the human race using scientific concept. He suggested that human races have distinct origin from each other. For instance, Whites and Negroes are of different species. According to White, races were created at different times and separated. Charles supported his theory by denying Georges-Louis Leclerc’s suggestions that said that interbreeding can only feasible in the humans with the same species. White gave an example of the wolf and fox that came from different species and said that they cannot interbreed. For White, different races came from different species.
From the above theories of different polygenists, the human race is based on the cultural beliefs and not scientific. People from different communities tend to believe that race has some effects in the human life, but it is not true. If there are racial effects on the human life, then the chief impact the racial prejudice or racial discrimination. Such discrimination has been the major factor that is separating the blacks and white. For instance, racial discrimination is still the major problem in USA and South Africa.
Racial Theories in Physical Anthropology
In the scientific classifications, which were established by Carl Linnaeus, provide the firm foundation for each person’s racial classification. In 19th century, classical evolution was a mixture of sociologic and anthropologic suggestions that were proposing that the Western Europeans was the most magnificent in human social-cultural development. Such assertions became rampant among the physicians and philosophers like Friedrich, Hegel, and Auguste. The Christian Bible, which was inaccurately translated by several people in 1820s, was used in Antebellum by Rev. Richard to encourage the belief that Negroes are inferior, and hence they fit well in the outfit of slavery. Such believe an imagination and not the reality. It is culturally constructed. More examples of the cultural construction of the race concept are given by Charles Darwin and Immanuel Kant’s theories (Gregory 67).
Charles Darwin’s Theory
Charles Darwin’s theory about the genesis of human species tries to come up with the suggestions about the human race. Charles grounds his assertions on the means of natural selection and the preservation of the favored race in the struggle for the fittest. Charles says there should be no support and opposition in the ranking of the human race in the world. He finally says in his report that there are no racial differences that can illustrate that human races are discrete in species. According to Charles Darwin, people should not consider the primitive races as legitimate human beings. Such suggestions depict his disregard of slavery that is aiming at undermining primitive people. In contrast to what many people knew by that time, Charles had progressive views in his suggestions as far as racism is concerned. He also abhorred people who persecuted and enslaved the black people. Darwin never advocated for underestimation of the black people (Darwin 23).
As he came up with his theory of evolution, many Christians came up and justified their problems and enslavement. Darwin said that despite the fact that the races of human have many differences like the outlook of the hair, if their body organization and formation are taken into considerations, they happen to resemble one another. Darwin added that a significant break between the man and his allies was improving as the graveyard objection would not be viewed of much importance to the chaps who believed in the principle of evolution. He argued this as far as superiority is concerned. The division of people and their allies would occur in all series with some being wide and blunt and others being narrow and sharp (Darwin 35).
Some communities in US and South Africa have the ideology that the human race is real. In US, the Black Americans were racially discriminated in both employments and accessing the public facilities in the past years. Such prejudice continued at its high rate till early 1990s where the law that was discouraging racial discrimination was enacted and signed by Bill Clinton. The same case occurred in South Africa. During the colonial period, South Africa faced an immense apartheid. It was the time when black and white people never mixed at all. White people had their facilities like hospitals, schools and roads. Such actions the South African citizens the mentality that race was real, and it has effects on their lives. After the removal of the apartheid law, South Africa became the real place for the people. Although there are some reported cases about race discrimination in Cape Town, racial prejudice has been reduced in South Africa (Pettiggrew 56).
In conclusion, the race is an imagined, or culturally constructed, concept. People have the same origin despite the fact that they have different colors. Enlightenment thinkers asserted various theories about the genesis of the races. Such theories, for instance, Charles Darwin and Robert Boyle, have proposed that race is an imagination and not reality.Buy similar custom paper at

Work Cited
Charles, Darwin. The origin of species: by means of natural selection or the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life. New York: New American Library, 1958. Print.
Baugh, John. Beyond Ebonics: Linguistic pride and racial prejudice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.
Simpson, George E., and Yinger, Milton J. Racial and cultural minorities; an analysis of prejudice and discrimination. New York: Harper & Row, 1965. Print.
Pettiggrew, Thomas F. Prejudice. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press, 1982. Print.
Edelman, Bryan C. Racial prejudice, juror empathy, and sentencing in death penalty cases. New York: LFB Scholarly Pub, 2006. Print.
Gregory, Steven E. Race. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 1994. Print.
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