custom writing services

Need more information?: Chat with us


support@myprivateresearcher.com

order download
Average score 4.96 out of 5 based on 673 opinions

In which behavior feedback loop are you trying to produce an output that moves you away from the ideal?

MODULE ONE: PERSPECTIVES
Over the next four weeks, we will investigate the following motivational themes/perspectives:
1. Week one: evolutionary perspectives:
2. Week two temperament- Elliott and Thrash, 2002
3. Week Three: self regulation-
Research: Carver, 2004
4. Week Four

–A. learning: habits (summarize)

–B. cognitive dissonance (summarize) week three

The Cognitive Perspective on Motivation
Cognitions-mental events
The cognitive perspective on motivation
How does a person’s way of thinking and believing influence (motivate) behavior?
Includes mental constructs like beliefs, expectations, goals, plans, judgments, values, and the self-concept
Our Focus: Goal Setting, Implementing, Threat Assessment, Avoidance and Self regulation
Historical Model–
PLANS: Criticism
In summary:

–We detect and inconsistency

–We formulate and enact a plan

–We detect and inconsistency

–We formulate and enact a plan

Plans are viewed as fixed and static
Contemporary cognitive models allow a more dynamic and flexible depiction of plan-directed behavior
Rather than activating an action sequence, incongruity gives rise to corrective motivation which can take many forms:
Change the plan, change the behavior’s intensity, or drop the plan altogether
Updating the TOTE Model
New areas of research followed the TOTE model
Modifications:
Goal setting
The importance of Feedback
Self regulation of goal attainment and threat avoidance
Adaptive Value of Goal Setting
Setting goals yields higher quality performance
Examples:
Sit-ups, weightlifting, learn textbook information, sell products, shoot archery, conserve natural resources, lose weight, logging, word process, truck driving trips
A few qualifiers though: goal effectiveness depends upon two factors: goal difficulty and goal specificity
Adaptive Value of Goal Setting
Linear relationship between difficulty and performance
Adaptive Value of Goals Setting
Specificity
How clearly a goal conveys expectations
“Do your best” vs. “Get out your spelling list, rehearse the word list 4 times and write each word 4 times”
Specific=including something numerical
Specificity produces consistency in performance across individuals
Adaptive Value
Summary: Goals will enhance performance under specific circumstances:
Difficult goals
Energize the performer
Increase effort and persistence
Specific goals
Direct the performer toward a specific course of actions, increase mental and behavioral focus
They tell the person where to concentrate attention and what specifically to do
So…specific, difficult goals raise performance, yielding a net decrease in the ideal performance-actual performance discrepancy
Caution:
It is not automatic that proper goal setting will yield performance gains:
Performance depends on other factors, besides motivation:
Ability, training, coaching, resources
Application: Goal Striving, Threat Avoidance and the Role of Affect
The current research article
Carver, 2004: Self Regulation of Action and Affect
Self-regulation involves the person’s metacognitive (self) monitoring of how his or her goal-setting progress is going.
It is our ability to transform mental abilities into task related skills
In other words, it involves self monitoring of your behavior AND evaluation of the productivity of that behavior in achieving a goal or avoiding a threat
Application: Goal Striving, Threat Avoidance and the Role of Affect
Some background info on this cognitive model
“Cybernetic Model”
Interdisciplinary study of the structure of complex systems
A cybernetic model works ONLY in a closed loop fashion.
Purpose: to define the functions and workings of systems that have goals and participate in a circular causal chain that moves from

–action (behavior),

–to sensing (one’s current situation),

–to comparison (of situation with an ideal) that will prompt further action

Application: Goal Striving, Threat Avoidance and the Role of Affect
Why cybernetic models do a better job of describing human behavior than the TOTE model

–Shows how we can handle multiple tasks

–Depicts our ability to focus on multiple goals at once

Application: Goal Striving, Threat Avoidance and the Role of Affect
Some background info on this cognitive model
Definitions:
“Discrepancy Reducing” Behavior Feedback Loop

–Behavior is produced to REDUCE any discrepancy between a goal (ideal state) and one’s perception of a current behavior (current state)

–Follows all of the properties of “Discrepancy-Reduction” planning and goal seen in previous slides

–Kinds of discrepancy that is produced: behavior is not close enough; behavior has exceeded ideal

–Behaviors that are produced from perceived discrepancies are vastly different, depending upon whether the discrepancy indicates failure to meet the goal or exceeding the goal

Application: Goal Striving, Threat Avoidance and the Role of Affect
Some background info on this cognitive model
Definitions:
“Discrepancy Enhancing” Behavior Feedback Loop

–Behavior is produced to push you away from, or to move away from, a threat (ideal state), also called an “anti-goal”

–This loop acts to ENLARGE the discrepancy between the anti-goal and the current perception

–Kinds of discrepancy that is produced: behavior takes the person too close to the threat; behavior has kept the person further from away from the threat

–Behaviors that are produced from perceived discrepancies are vastly different, depending upon whether the discrepancy indicates failure to avoid the threat or exceeding the threat

Application: Goal Striving, Threat Avoidance and the Role of Affect
Some background info on this cognitive model
Definitions:
“Affect” Loop

–Affect indicates our desires and whether those desires are being met

–Loop works simultaneously with a behavior feedback loop

–Here, a comparison is made between one’s current RATE of progress toward a goal (or away from a threat) and one’s ideal RATE of progress.

–Types of discrepancy:

–you are not going fast enough

–You are going too fast

–The kinds of affects that are produced will vary depending upon the following:

Whether the reference concerns a goal or a threat
Whether the rate is too slow or faster than intended

Hints to Guide Your Reading
Note: the following are suggestions that will IMMENSELY assist you in taking the quiz and especially in preparing you for your exam…please be sure to do this as you are reading, or as soon as you finish
Reading: pgs 13-top of pg 27
First, re-draw Carver’s model of self regulation (figure 2.1)
Secondly, define each of the terms in the model
Thirdly, please execute one iteration (that means use the model in a step by step fashion) of the model with respect to a goal that you have in this class. Here’s how:

–First…imagine a good “Reference Value” (goal)…one with some sort of numerical value in it (recall, a difficult and a specific goal yields best performance)

–You also determine “The Current Input”, execute “The Comparator” and determine an “Output”

–Imagine this “Disturbance”: you experience car trouble and are certain your school work will have to be put off for an entire day while it gets fixed.

–Determine this disturbance’s “Effect on the Environment”, and re-run the rest of the model to see how your output could likely be affected.

Next, instead of using a Goal as a “Reference Value”, now substitute this “Threat: you have determined that to avoid any contact with a car, it is best to cross a street when vehicles are at least 100 feet away from you. “ What would be the result of the comparator function? What would be a possible output?
Hints to Guide Your Reading
Questions for Reflection:
What kind of affect occurs when a goal is going well? What type of behavior is likely produced?
What kind of emotion occurs when a goal is going poorly? What type of behavior is likely produced?
What kind of affect occurs when a threat is going well (is being avoided)? What type of behavior is likely produced?
What kind of affect occurs when a threat is going poorly (you are getting closer to the threat value)? What type of behavior is likely produced?
In which type of behavior feedback loop are you trying to produce an output that moves you closer to the ideal?
In which behavior feedback loop are you trying to produce an output that moves you away from the ideal?
How do these cybernetic models indicate when you could or should shift from one reference situation to another. For example, how do you know, according to these models, when to shift from the reference of “spending time with my significant other” to the reference of “earning a 90% on my chemistry exam”?
Discussion Group Case Study
The goal of this case study is to get you to consider why or how failures in self regulation could occur.
Janie, a person with an avoidant temperament approaches you, a clinical psychologist, and indicates that she is having an anxiety problem. Specifically, she suffers from “generalized anxiety” which means that she is chronically anxious and really doesn’t know why. In other words, nothing in her environment triggers anxiety, per se, she just feels anxious all the time.
Why should this make sense to you, knowing that she has an avoidant, rather than an approach temperament?
You decide to use a cognitive therapy strategy to assist her in alleviating her anxiety. In preparation for your first counseling session, you create a cybernetic behavioral and affective feedback loop that would indicate how an anxiety disorder would occur (NOTE: the KIND of behavior feedback loop you use is critical to understanding this task)
So, pick you behavior loop. Next indicate how a malfunction in the components would likely create chronic anxiety that would lead to her anxiety disorder. Look at each component, consider how it should function for a person to have a normal affective life, and then consider how that specific component could work improperly, thereby causing an erroneous affective output.
After identifying all of the possible malfunctions, focus in on one and formulate a strategy to help her regain adaptive self regulation that would decrease her anxiety disorder.
Discuss your thoughts with your group, then post your collective feedback loop and explanation of the malfunction within the class discussion.

HOW IT WORKS

  simple order process Pricing order download You have just landed to the most confidential, trustful essay writing service to order the paper from. We have a dedicated team of professional writers who will assist you with any kind of assignment that you have. Your work is handled confidentially with a specific writer who ensures you are satisfied. Be assured of quality, unique and price friendly task delivered in good time when you place an order at our website. banner We have a team of dedicated writers with degrees from all spheres of study. We readily accept all types of essays and we assure you of content that will meet your expectations. Our staff can be reached  via live chat, email or by phone at any given time with prompt response.  

Prices starting at:

High school
Undergrad.(yrs 1-2)
Undergrad.(yrs 3-4)
Master’s
Doctoral
$10 / page
$10/ page
$12/ page
$15 / page
$17/ page

Note: The prices in the table above are applicable to orders completed within 14 days. Kindly see the full price table for more prices..

We urge you to provide as much information as possible to avoid many revisions. Set your deadline, choose your level, give payment information and relax while you track your work. We will deliver your paper on time. . 1 Are you in a quagmire and you are unable to complete your assignments? Do you doubt yourself on the quality of the essay you have written? Myprivateresearcher.com  is here to assist you. We will offer you unmatched quality that is plagiarism free. Place an order at myprivateresearcher.com  for guaranteed  high grades. order download

we offer gifts to our paper help customersPayment Methods

you can request our services and pay via paypal

we offer gifts to our paper help customersOur Guarantees

  1. Zero plagiarism.
  2. 100% confidentiality.
  3. FREE Reference page
  4. High Quality papers
  5. 24/7 Customer support

Our Testimonials Testimonials

I ordered a 7 page college essay and was delivered on time. Thank you guys I will definitely order again!

9.5
, FL

Our statisticsOur Statistics

  • Orders Completed todate 65387

  • Number of writers 246

  • Satisfied customers 98.7%

  • Returning customers 92.3%

  • Orders placed today 204