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INTЕRNАL СОMBUSTIОN ЕNGINЕS – РRЕSSURЕ АND РЕRFОRMАNСЕ. A4-cylinder, 1.6 litre (1.6 x 10-3 m3),4 stroke petrol engine Assume following measured data: • Atmospheric pressureHHHHpa = 760 mmHg • Room temperature Ta = 25 °C • Engine speed N = 3000 rpm = 50 rps= 314.15 rads-1 • Engine torque T =50 Nm • Fuel flow = 0.002 litre.s-1 = 2 x 10-6 m3s-1 • Air flow =1900 litre.min-1 =0 031666 m3s-1
Assume following constants: • Fuel calorific value CV= 45000 kJkg-1 • Fuel density pf =748 kg m-3 • Mercury density pHg = 13500 kgm-3 • Gas constant for air R = 287 Jkg-1 K-1 • Specific heat capacity exhaust gas/air Cp,a = 1.02 kJ kg-1 K-1 • Specific heat capacity coolant water Cp,cw= 4.2 kJ kg-1 K-1
NOTE: the quantities measured in the experiment are in a variety of inconsistent units and should be converted to a standard set of units prior to any analysis. Atmospheric pressure
Height of the mercury column in the barometerLmm Density of mercury kgm-3 Acceleration due to gray ityHms-2 Absolute pressure of atmosphere Pa
Measured Celsius temperature of substance L.° C Kelvin Temperature of substance i0K for
exhaust gas, Li = ex cooling water, Li = cw air at inlet, L.i = a ,in
Swept (Displaced) Volume of Engine
Displaced volume of engineLcm3 Displaced volume of engineL m3
Engine speed
Measured rotational speed of the engineLrpm Rotational speed of the engineHrev.s-1 Rotational speed of the engine Lrad.s-1
Fuel Flow Rate
Volume flow rate of fuel m3s-1 Density of fuel kgm-3 Mass flow rate of fuel kgs-1
Air Flow Rate
Measured inlet air volume flow rate 1.min-1
Volume flow rate of air into engine m3s-1
Inlet air temperatureLK Gas constant for airLJAcg-1K-1 Inlet air density kgm-3 Air mass flow rate’ kgs-1
APPENDIX 4.0 DEFINITIONS AND CALCULATED QUANTITIES – You will need Figures 1 and 2 and Appendix 3 for nomenclature A. HVolumetric Efficiency (how well does the engine ‘breath’?) measured flow rate of air /theoretical flow rate of air for the displaced (swept) volume and speed This is for an engine operating on a 4-stroke cycle. (where engine speed, N’ in rev.s-1, in m3s-1, displaced volume, VD in m3) a Indicated Power
(where IMEP is the measured indicated mean effective pressure)
C. Brake Power
Dynamometer torque Brake power :.W (where N” is the engine speed in rads-1) D. Rate of Energy (power) Loss to Cooling Water
Cooling water inlet temperature K Cooling water outlet temperature LK Specific heat capacity of the cooling water (watch the units0H4.2 kJkg-1K-1 Rate of energy (power) loss to cooling water ..W
E. Rate of Energy (power) Loss to Exhaust
Air inlet temperature K Exhaust outlet temperature LK Specific heat capacity of air (watch the units!)H1.02 kJkg-1K-1 Rate of energy (power) loss to exhaustLW
F. Fuel Power
Calorific value of fuel (watch the unitsOL kJkg-1 Fuel powerLW L L (where CVf is the calorific value for Gasoline 95 RON, is the mass flow rate of fuel in kgs-1)
IM EP Llndicated mean effective pressure (average pressure over a cycle in the combustion chamber) Lipa
Suggested reading • Breithaupt J., (2003) “Physics 2nd Ed”, Palgrav e-MacMillan, ISBN 1403900558 • Setway, A (2004),”Physics for scientists and engineers”, Thomson Brooks/Cole, ISBN 0534423981 • Holman J.P. (1994),”Experimental methods for engineers”, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0070296669 • Ray, M., (1988) “Engineering experimentation — Ideas, techniques and Presentation”, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0070841845 •LWheelerA., Ganji A., (2004) “Introduction to engineering experimentation”, Pearson Education, ISBN 0131246852 •L The Testing of Internal Combustion Engines by Arthur Bates; Lucas, G. G.; Young, Sydney John Greene ISBN 13: 9780340053683 ISBN 10: 0340053682 Hardcover London: English Universities P.,1969 •L Applied Thermodynamics for Engineering Technologists, 5th Edition T.D. Eastop, A. Mcconkey Mar 1993, Paperback,736 pages ISBN13: 9780582091931 ISBN10: 0582091934. • Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines by Richard Stone, 3rd Ed. (659 pages) Macmillan 1999 • Internal Combustion Engines, Applied Thermosciences, C.R. Ferguson and A.T. Krkpatrick,2nd edition, Wiley, 2001. •L Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, J.B. Heywood, McGraw-Hi11,1988 •L Specifications for Reciprocating internal combustion Engine’s Performance- BSI BS5514


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