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One Success and One Failure of Operation Odyssey Dawn

Week 2 Leadership Theory Script
Slide # Script
Theories and
This presentation will present a historical review of a multitude of leadership
theories. Please know that this list is not all inclusive, and only the main
ideas of each theory are presented. Books have been written on each of these
theories, so you are getting a very broad overview. If any of these theories
resonate with your personal style of leadership, I hope that you will consider
doing some independent reading on the theory of your choice. Next slide
Great Man or
Trait Theories
Much of the early work in regards to leadership focused on studying the
leaders themselves. Research was directed at identifying the intellectual,
emotional, physical, and personal traits of leaders. The underlying
assumption was that leaders are born, not made, and that they possess many
traits that are inherited, not developed over time. Think Abraham Lincoln,
Martin Luther King, Ghandi. This theory also believes that great leaders rise
up when needed. After many years of research, while many common traits of
leaders were identified, the traits were not predictive of effective leaders. The
characteristics on the right side of the slide is a sample of some of the traits
that are consistent with leadership. Next slide please.
In the 1940’s, leadership research moved away from focusing on leadership
traits, to focusing on what the leader did, or more specifically, the
individual’s style of leadership. The table above compares 3 leadership
styles – Authoritarian, Democratic, and Laissez Faire – described by Lewin
(1951) and White & Lippitt (1960). Authoritarian leaders are mostly found
in large bureaucracies. Under authoritarian leadership, productivity is high,
however creativity and self motivation are low. The democratic leadership
style is just the opposite. With this style, individuals work together in a
group, and are cooperative and collaborative. It may take a bit more time to
complete tasks, however everyone is involved in the communication and
decision making process. Laissez faire is non-directional style of leadership
that can be very frustrating because group apathy can occur. This style can
be effective if group members are very highly motivated and self-directed.
As you read through this table, think about which style resonates with you as
a leader, and also which style resonates with you as a follower. Next slide
4 Knowledge Check – no script
5 Knowledge Check Answer – no script
While the three leadership styles just described seemed to be accepted for a
while, it was soon realized that often the leadership style had to change based
on the situation at hand. Thus the Situational and Contingency leadership
Leadership theories evolved. These theories believed that one leadership style cannot be
effective in every situation; thus a good leader had to be able to change one’s
style based on the situation.
One well known contingency theorist is Fred E. Fiedler. Fiedler believed
that a leader’s behavior is dependent upon the favorability of the leadership
situation. Three factors work together to determine how favorable a situation
is to a leader. These are:
Leader-member relations – The degree to which the leader is trusted and
liked by the group members, and the willingness of the group members to
follow the leader’s guidance
Task structure – The degree to which the group’s task has been described as
structured or unstructured, has been clearly defined and the extent to which it
can be carried out by detailed instructions
Position power – The power of the leader by virtue of the organizational
position and the degree to which the leader can exercise authority on group
members in order to comply with and accept his direction and leadership
One needs to consider these three factors when determining if the leader
should focus on the task or focus on relationship building. Looking at the
slide information for example, if the leader-member relationship is good, the
task is structured, and the leader’s power is strong, then a task oriented leader
would be more effective. On the other hand, if the leader-member
relationship was poor, the task was structured, and the leader position was
weak, then a relationship oriented leader would be needed. Next slide please.
Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard developed a situational leadership
theory that is based on the level of readiness of the followers to complete
tasks. According to this model, the leader has to match the leadership style
according to the readiness of subordinates which moves in stage and has a
cycle. Therefore, this theory is also known as the life-cycle theory of
Readiness is based on two factors: the extent to which followers have the
ability to accomplish a task and the willingness to accomplish a specific
task. Ability is the knowledge, experience, and skill that an individual
possesses to do the job and is called job readiness. Willingness is the
motivation and commitment required to accomplish a given task. The style of
leadership depends on the level of readiness of the followers. Note that if
there is a low follower readiness, the leadership style is “Telling” vs. if there
is a high follower readiness, the style would be “Delegating.” Thus, this
leadership theory assumes that the style of leader is determined by the
motivation and skills of the followers. Next slide please.
Managerial Grid
Here is a third example of situational leadership. Robert Blake and Jean
Mouton proposed the managerial grid above. It is an application of
situational leadership theory. Blake and Mouton proposed that depending on
the situation, leaders needed to focus on productivity and tasks , as well as
people and relationships. For example if a critical situation existed where
the task needed to get done quickly an efficiently and there was little focus
on developing relationships or considering the needs of the followers, the
leader would fall into the 9,1 area – task management. On the other hand if
the leader’s goal was to build a personal relationship with others, the leader
would fall into the 1,9 area – country club. Can you think of times when the
task management/dictator style would be appropriate? Next slide please.
Interactional leadership theories evolved in the 1970’s. The focus of these
theories was on the leader using his/her personality to build relationships,
complete tasks, and solve problems. Like the situation/contingency theorists,
interactional theorists believed that no single leadership style is effective in
every situation; rather leaders need to consider their own personalities, the
personalities of their followers, and the tone of the situation when leading.
Next slide please.
Hollander was an early interactional theorist. He believed that leadership is a
2-way dynamic process between the leader and followers. The situation in
which the leader and followers are in will affect this interaction. Also part of
the “situation” is the “outside influences” that could affect leadership and
followership. In other words, the leader-follower interaction does not exist in
isolation of the real world – factors outside of the work world will influence
how we interact as leaders and followers. Hollander also believed that
effective leadership requires excellent problem solving and communication
skills, as well as fairness, competence, dependability, creativity and group
identification, if the interactions are going to be successful. Next slide
11 Knowledge Check – no script
12 Knowledge check answer – no script
Transactional vs.
Two leadership theories that are often compared to each other are
Transactional and Transformational. Transactional leaders focus on the use
of rewards and punishment to motivate followers, and appeal to self interest
of the follower rather than the organization. Transformational leaders on the
other hand help followers to focus on the organization, but also empowers
them to reach their personal goals. Transformational Leadership has become
very popular in the nursing arena. It engulfs concepts such as vision,
empowerment, high morals, doing the right thing, and being creative and
innovative. While the transformational leadership model is lauded, it is
thought that without traditional management skills proposed by transactional
theory, it may be difficult to accomplish the day to day tasks. Next slide
Robert Greenleaf studied leaders in his staff development position at AT&T
for over 30 years. He noticed that the most successful put others first; they
placed employees, customers and the community first. The box on the right
lists some of the characteristics of servant leaders. Servant leaders listen, are
open-minded, choose words carefully, are able to deal with ambiguity, and
gather input trying to see the whole. Next slide please.
This slide was adapted from a presentation by Greenleaf, and depicts the
paradox of Servant Leadership. The terms “servant” and “leader” seem like
opposites, however when you read the slide boxes from left to right, it
certainly puts Servant Leadership into perspective. For example, a servant
leader must plan enough to be spontaneous. A servant leader must be wise
enough to admit you don’t know. A servant leader must be strong enough to
be open to change, and right enough to say “I’m wrong.” Next slide please.
Emotional intelligence is a very popular theory in leadership today. Rather
than focusing on tasks, interactions, or traits as the basis for leadership style,
EI emphasizes one’s ability to express and regulate emotions of self and
others as a way to build a team and make things happen. Goleman identified
5 components that comprise emotional intelligence. These are:
1) Self-awareness to recognize and understand one’s moods, emotions
and drives, as well as how they affect others;
2) Self-regulation to control or redirect disruptive impulses or moods as
well as the propensity to suspend judgment;
3) Motivation or a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money or
status; a propensity to pursue goals with energy and commitment;
4) Empathy or the ability to understand and accept the emotional
makeup of other people
5) Social Skills: Proficiency in handling relationships and building
networks; an ability to find common ground
If you think about these 5 components, aren’t they really what a leader needs
to do on a daily basis to accomplish a vision?
Next slide please.
Authentic leadership is also called “Congruent Leadership” and refers to the
fact that the activities and actions of the leader must match their stated
principles, values, and beliefs. This theory differs from the others we have
discussed thus far in that the in the former theories, the vision was often
influenced by external forces (for example, the mission of the institution,
administration, etc.). In Authentic Leadership, it is the leader’s convictions
to act in a certain way that inspires followers to realize their own vision.
Shirey’s 5 characteristics above describe an authentic leader. Additionally,
Avolio et al. (2009) described 4 additional components of authentic
leadership. First, have balance processing – or the ability to analyze data
rationally before making a decision. Secondly, authentic leaders internalize a
moral perspective, which implies that these more standards guide behavior.
Thirdly, authentic leaders have relational transparency meaning the openly
share feelings and information. Last of all, authentic leaders have great selfawareness,
so they are able to make sense of the world. Next slide please.
Cultural bridging goes beyond cultural competence in patient care. This
theory suggests that a good leader promotes a work environment where
differences are respected and valued. The diversity of the followers is
encouraged and used for the good of the organization. As the diversity in the
nursing workforce continues to increase, this type of thinking in leadership
will become more prominent. Next slide please.
Diversity in the
Note the diversity in our nursing profession (HRSA, 2008); 82.5% are
caucasian, 5.8% are asian, 5.6% are African American, 3.9% are hispanic,
1.9% are multi-racial, and .3% are American Indian. As a leader or manager
of nurses, it is critical to increase diversity and make nursing a welcoming
profession. Next slide please.
20 Knowledge Check – No Script
21 Knowledge Check Answer — No script
So what’s your
Once again, your mission in this course is to develop your own personal
leadership style. This week, we have reviewed several leadership theories
and ideas in this presentation. The information presented is intended to be an
overview of the main points of some leadership theories. Please feel free to
obtain additional sources and read more on theories that resonate with your
way of thinking about leadership.
This concludes this presentation.


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