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Thermodynamic systems & Combustion

Section (A)

QA1) In a steam plant, the turbine develops 700 kW. The heat energy supplied to the steam (Qin) is 1650kJ/kg and the rate of feed pump work to pump condensate back to the boiler is 7.5 kW. The mass flow rate of the steam is 2700kg/h. Draw the thermodynamic cycle and determine the heat rejected (Qout) in kJ/kg.

QA2) A reciprocating internal combustion engine has a clearance volume of
V2 = 0.0001 m3. The volume ratio is V1/V2 = 10 and pressure and temperature of the combustion gases when the piston is at top dead centre (TDC) are P2 = 40 bar and
T2 = 1800oC respectively. The process follows the law PV1.3= Constant. Determine:
a) The temperature and pressure of the gases at the end of the process (i.e. after expansion). Note: Temperatures must be changed into degree Kelvins.
b) The work transfer at the end of the process.

QA3) A steam turbine passes 15000kg/h of steam at pressure of 0.08 bar and 85% dry to a condenser. In the condenser, the steam is condensed and leaves the condenser at temperature of 30oC. The velocities to and from the condenser are ignored. Clearly write down the Steady Flow Energy Equation and hence apply it into the system and determine the rate of heat rejected from the condenser.

QA4) By using steam table, determine:
a) The specific enthalpy of steam: 70% dry, pressure of 22bar.
b) The specific internal energy of saturated liquid at 30bar.
c) The specific volume of steam at 40bar and 80% dryness fraction
d) The specific enthalpy and the specific volume of steam at 15bar and 300oC
e) The specific entropy and the specific volume of steam at 30bar and 400oC.
f) The degree of superheat of steam at 20bar and 275oC, and 60bar and 500oC

QA5) Write down the combustion equations with pure oxygen of the following fuels and identifies the product of combustions. Calculate the stoichiometric A/F ratio by mass and volume for one of the fuel. Assuming air contains 23% oxygen by mass and 21% by volume:
a) C6H6 (BENZENE)
b) C36H74 (PARAFFIN)
c) C6H14 (HEXANE)

QA6) METHANE “CH4” has a net calorific value of 48.16MJ/kg. This fuel is burned in a boiler at the rate of 1.2kg/s to produce steam. The rate of heat transfer to the steam is 47MW. If “hfg” of water vapour is 2442kJ/kg, determine the boiler efficiency based on Gross calorific value.

Section (B)

QB7) A medium size steam boiler required to supply an electric generator of output 25MW has the following performance specifications:
The mass flow rate of steam output = 31.6 kg/s.
The steam pressure and temperature are 60 bar and 500oC respectively.
The feed water temperature is 100oC.
The fuel is CH4 (Methane) with Net Calorific Value of 55MJ/kg.
Fuel consumption is 2kg/s.
Calculate (assuming no excess air):

a) Stoichiometric A/F ratio by mass and mass flow rate of air.
b) Dry and wet analysis of products of combustion by mass.
c) Boiler efficiency based on (GCV) and overall thermal efficiency of the plant.

Air contains 23% O2 and 77% N 2 by mass. For calorific value, assuming
hfg = 2442 kJ/kg.

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