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Use picture from 2D Force Equilibrium scenario (Discussion assignment) (your own or someone elses)or find different picture altogether which shows a person or animal in a static pose, with 2D forces.

Draw the correct forces, if not already done. (drawing interaction pairs not required now)

Choose a limb and its corresponding joint, on which at least one of the contact forces is acting. Find a picture showing the opposing muscles acting on this limb about the joint. Enlarge the picture enough to clearly draw on it.

Identify chosen limb and joint

Draw, on the picture, the opposing muscle force vectors

The tail of the force vectors at the point of attachment of the tendon to the bone,

The direction of the force vector in the direction of the pull of the tendon on the bone.

Draw and label, for each force, either:

r (lever arm)

r and

r and F (force perpendicular)

Indicate by curved arrows or words flex (flexion), ext. (extension) or CW, CCW the direction of torque about the joint each of these muscle forces would cause, if acting alone.

Go back to draw on the 2D Force Equilibrium picture

Draw, for each contact force acting on the chosen limb, either:

r (lever arm)

r and

r and F (force perpendicular)

Draw the weight vector of the chosen limb. For this vector draw either:

r (lever arm)

r and

r and F (force perpendicular)

Indicate by curved arrows or words flex (flexion), ext. (extension) or CW, CCW the direction of torque about the joint each of these forces would cause, if acting alone.

Decide which of the muscle forces must be creating the counter-torque to balance the torques of the other forces.

Using the muscle picture for reference, redraw on the 2D picture

that muscle force vector (estimate placement and direction as best you can)

and either

r (lever arm)

r and

r and F (force perpendicular)

Stage 2:

Submission by Friday in this Discussion

Finding Muscle force

Write torque equilibrium equation for your limb in your scenario = 0

Solve algebraically for the magnitude of the muscle force, from the torque equilibrium equation.

Estimate, the best you can,

the contact forces acting on the limb (can be in terms of body weight)

the weight of the limb (can be in terms of body weight)

Estimate, the best you can, for each force (including muscle force), either

r (lever arm)

r and

r and F (force perpendicular)

From the estimated values, calculate an estimate for the muscle force (can be in terms of body weight)

Explain why your answer makes sense or doesnt make sense

Finding Joint force

Draw estimated direction of joint force

Draw and label components parallel and perpendicular to r (bone), for all forces

Write algebraic force relationships for F = 0 and F = 0

Solve algebraically for the components of the joint force that are parallel and perpendicular to the bone, J and J, using F = 0 and F = 0

Address qualitatively the compression and shear of the joint due to the joint force, with the body in this static position.

– Calculation of Joint Force

Estimate angles that each force makes with bone

Calculate these components for all forces except joint force, which is still unknown

Calculate the components of the joint force that are parallel and perpendicular to the bone, J and J, using F = 0 and F = 0

Compare quantitatively how much the joint gets compressed and how much shear, with the body in this static position.

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